Introduction Of Common Cables Types

Core Wire Types

There are many styles of finished cables in the market, some in accordance with the standard structure of the association, and some in accordance with the special requirements of customers. But no matter what the requirements and needs are, the composition and structure of the cable depend on the type of terminal interface, which is a matter of matching the connector interface. For example, many specifications have already been drafted according to UL standards, such as UL1007 and UL1015. The ones starting with 1 are mainly electronic wires. Or 2725, 20276. The ones starting with 2 are mainly multi-core wire combinations. Or 3385, 3386, the ones starting with 3 are mostly halogen-free core wires. There are many more, such as the structure of special fluoroplastics at the beginning of 4. These single core wires themselves are a type of cable, and can also form one of the individual structures of other finished cables. UL has made various regulations for these single core wires based on the application conditions of the applicant manufacturer, such as wire type, voltage and temperature grade, conductor material and specifications, insulation and outer layer material, insulation and outer layer thickness, and whether there is shielding What items need to be physically tested, and so on.

UL-Certification

Summary of Cable Product Categories

At present, the main categories of UL series include AWM (Appliance Wiring Material) file numbers; Mainly used in the specification design of electronic cables, followed by the file number of CL2 (Power Limited Circuit Cable: Power Limited Circuit Cable); Mainly used in some composite cables with high flame retardancy, followed by the file number of communication cable (CM) for communication cables; If divided by the structure and purpose of the wire, the consumer cables currently produced by various companies in the market are mainly classified into HDMI cables, USB cables, DVI cables, IEEE 1394 cables, coaxial lines, SCSI cables, IEEE1284 cables, single core or twisted pair computer cables, SAS cables, SFP+cables, ATA150 cables, telephone cables, network cables, and miscellaneous cables. Today, we will mainly introduce the basic structure and purpose of these cables to help everyone better understand, Attached are cable cross-section icons, which will be introduced one by one below.

USB is the abbreviation for Universal SerialBus Cables

Which means Universal Serial Bus Architecture Cable. It is mainly used for input/output systems for monitors and sound, keyboards, mice, modems, and printers. According to version, it can be divided into USB1.0, USB1.1, and USB2.0, USB3.0, USB3.1, USB3.2, and USB4 versions, with different transmission speed and electrical characteristics requirements; In general, the higher the version, the faster the transmission speed, and the more stringent the electrical characteristics requirements. The ordinary USB2.0 infrastructure includes a pair of signal wires (green, white) and two power wires (red, black), with the total shield made of aluminum foil and braided. As the version is upgraded, the cable structure begins to differentiate.

Learn more What's The Difference Between Different Versions of USB Cables?
USB3.0 Cable

DVI is the abbreviation for Digital Video Interface

Which is used for signal transmission between display cards and displays. It is a cable used for LCD displays. DVI is mainly divided into three categories, namely:

DVI-D (DVI-Digital) – Digital signal transmission, which can be divided into two forms:

      a) DVI-D Single Link: Single link, four pairs transmit R.G.B signals and clock signals separately.

      b) DVI-D Dual Link: Dual-link, compared to a single link, transmits two sets of R.G.B signals, shares one pair of clock signals, and transmits twice as much signal as a single link.

DVI-A (DVI-Analog) – Analog Signal Transmission.

DVI-I – Coexistent Transmission of Analog and Digital Signals.

DVI-D includes 4 or 7 pairs of signal wires, insulated with foam polyethylene FM-PE, with a ground wire added in the middle, and then covered with aluminum foil and Mylar. Our company’s regular colors are “brown * white, red * white, green * white, blue * white”, and also includes a pair of unshielded twisted wires for controlling screen up, down, left, and right movement, as well as a 3-core power cord.

DVI-A uses RGB coaxial lines as a bridge for signal transmission, and the insulation is foam polyethylene FM-PE, with colors of “red, green, or gray, blue”. The rest are basically the same as DVI-D. DVI goes further and further, and DVI interface standards are introduced; The structure of DVI-I is the synthesis of DVI-D and DVI-A, and their structures are as follows:

DVI-CABLE

IEEE 1394a Computer Multimedia Cables

The structure consists of two pairs of signal wires (red * green, blue * orange) and two power wires (black, white), and some specifications do not require power wires. The insulation of the signal wires is foam PE, both of which are woven and isolated with aluminum foil and tinned copper wire. The overall package is covered with Mylar, aluminum foil, and weaving. It is a high-frequency transmission line mainly used in videos, digital cameras, digital appliances, color scanners, etc. Its structure is as follows:

IEEE 1394a cable

We generally divide the coaxial line into four parts to introduce it. The first part is the RG high-frequency coaxial cable using MIL-C-17F (US military standard), the second part is the coaxial cable using JIS (Japanese industrial standard) specifications, the third part is the RGB coaxial line, and the last part is the general single core coaxial cable.

RG Cable high-frequency coaxial cable

Definition: Coaxial cable, consisting of two concentric axis conductors separated by an appropriate medium. The outer conductor is usually a ground potential, and its function is to create a loop for the current passing through the central conductor to prevent radiation of cable energy. The outer conductor is usually braided or metal coated, and the insulation is PE or FM-PE, FEP For example, RG58, RG316, RG179, etc., the general structure is shown in the following figure:

RG-Cable

High frequency coaxial cables

High frequency coaxial cables must have high-speed, long-distance, and low leakage characteristics. In addition, the isolation effect must meet the requirements of FCC RFI/EMI, and low smoke non-toxic materials should be used to meet the requirements of high-density wire and fire protection. It is suitable for transmission systems and signal control systems, such as connection lines, internal wiring, antenna feeders, carrier channel lines, etc. of high-frequency machines.

JIS coaxial cables

JIS coaxial cables are suitable for connection or internal wiring of transmission systems, signal control systems, or high-frequency machines. The insulation is PE, and aluminum foil longitudinal insulation and woven shielding can be added according to customer requirements. Its product names include 3C-2V CS, 2.5C-2V, etc. The following is an explanation of its structure diagram and product name markings:

JIS-coaxial-cables

RGB coaxial cable

RGB coaxial cable is a combination of the initials of red, green, or gray, blue colors, also known as Monitor Cable display cables, specifically used for connecting computer screens. The insulator of the single core coaxial line is foamed PE, and the characteristic impedance is required to be 75 ± 5 Ω at 10MHz; the surface is generally made of teeth, and the structure diagram is as follows:

rgb-cable

General coaxial cables

General coaxial cables, also known as single core isolation cables, refer to coaxial lines such as 1185 coaxial line, 1354 coaxial line, 1365 coaxial line, 1792 coaxial line, etc. They are all single core wires of UL AWM model, and these single core wires are also one of the basic units that constitute other composite cables, such as single core coaxial lines in RGB.

Cable series for SCSI small calculator systems


The SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) cable adheres to the standard set by the SCSI Association. SCSI serves as the interface for small computer systems, maintaining the intended meaning while offering distinct content from other articles. At present, our company produces 25 and 34 pairs of SCSI cables, with FM-PE used as insulators Based on its characteristics of multi pair, low attenuation, and large capacity, it is widely used in small calculator interface devices such as high-speed printers and multi interface digital transmission interfaces.

SCSI-cable

IEEE 1284 Cable List Machine Cable

The IEEE 1284 tabulator wires adhere to a standard specification of 18P twisted pair configuration. Each pair is individually insulated with polypropylene (PP) and further assembled with longitudinal PP film wrapping. To ensure enhanced shielding, aluminum foil, and tinned copper wire are tightly woven, achieving a shielding rate exceeding 85%. These wires are specifically designed for list machine connections, maintaining their intended meaning while providing unique content compared to other articles.

Single core or twisted pair computer cables

True to its name, this cable consists of either single-core or twisted pair wires, maintaining its intended meaning while offering distinct content from other articles. Based on their differences in structure and usage, they can be divided into the following parts to illustrate.

Scanner Cable (UL20276)

Consisting of 12 pairs of twisted wires and 1 core single core wire (i.e. 12 and a half pairs), the conductor is 28AWG tinned stranded copper wire, and the insulation is PP Used for connecting scanner cables.

Scanner Cable

ComputerCable (UL2464) single and double-layer shielded computer cable. 

Single core computer cable, UL1061 core, data transmission cable, suitable for broadcasting, audiovisual equipment, instruments, computer cables, in accordance with EIA RS-232 international electrical specifications.

computer cable

UL1061 core twisted pair computer cable is a data transmission cable designed for applications in broadcasting, audio-visual equipment, instruments, and computer cables. This cable adheres to the EIA RS-232 international electrical specifications, ensuring compatibility and reliable performance.

Computer Cable-2

Computer Cable (UL2960) double-layer shielded computer cable.

Twisted pair computer cable, with PP core insulation and data transmission cable. Applied to broadcasting, audiovisual equipment, instruments, and computer cables, in accordance with EIA RS-232 international electrical specifications.

Computer Cable

SerialATA Cables

SerialATA is an abbreviation for “Serial Advanced Technology Attachment”. It is a serial communication protocol that has two pairs of signal lines, each used to transmit bidirectional data. Additionally, a 15PIN power line can be configured to provide 3V, 5V, and 12V power or use other power sources. The signal wiring uses foam PE insulation, aluminum foil shielding, and four grounding wires. It is mainly used to connect PCs and hard drives, and the common structural shapes are as follows:

SerialATA Cable

LAN Cables Regional Network Cables

There are 22AWG and 24AWG regional network cables, which are mainly composed of four pairs of wires and are insulated with high-density PE. The conventional colors are “blue * white/blue, orange * white/orange, green * white/green, brown * white/brown”, and there are CAT3, CAT4, CAT5, CAT5e, CAT6 and other wires. The conductors are divided into single copper and twisted copper, including shielded (FTP, SFTP) and unshielded (UTP). Regional network cables support multiple wiring structures and transmission media, such as voice, digital Local area network environments such as telegram, image, and video communication are used in high-speed, high-capacity integrated services such as multimedia, and intelligent buildings for data communication networks.

lan-cable

Telephone Cable

I believe everyone is familiar with telephone wires, which are usually flat wires with a number of 2 to 10 cores. They are polypropylene PP insulated and used for electronic equipment telephone straight and coiled wires.

Telephone-Cord

HDMI Cable

The earliest HDMI version, released in December 2002 as version 1.0, was designed specifically for full HD software such as Blu ray. Its biggest feature was the integration of both image and audio transmission, making it more suitable for use in audio and video equipment compared to the DVI and DisplayPort pure image transmission interfaces on computers. HDMI 1.0 already supports DVD and Blu ray video, with a maximum bandwidth of 4.95 Gbps, of which 3.96 Gbps is used for video streaming, Can support 1080/60p or UXGA resolution; In terms of audio, it supports 8-channel LPCM at 24bit/192kHz. In other words, it has been broadcasted to multi-channel Hi-Res, which is quite strong compared to cable specifications during the same period; Now it has been upgraded to HDMI2.1 version; The changes in the later version mainly focus on design parameters, and there have been no significant changes to the wire structure!

Overview of the categories and applications of wire and cable products

There are various types of wires and cables, which can be divided into various categories based on different needs, usage environments, and materials, such as fire-resistant cables, submarine cables, cold resistant cables, moisture-proof cables, high-speed cables, etc. Wire and cable products can be roughly divided into two categories based on their categories and applications. One is communication high-frequency cables that mainly run signals, and the other is current transmission wires that mainly run currents. With the variety of application scenarios, At present, the product categories of wires have also begun to have various design structures, from simple telegraph and telephone lines in the past to coaxial, optical fiber, and data cables. These numerous development processes are also a brief history of the development of cable products.

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IEEE 1284 Cable List Machine Cable

The standard specification for IEEE 1284 tabulator wires is 18P twisted pair, insulated with polypropylene (PP), with each pair assembled and longitudinally wrapped with PP film. Additionally, aluminum foil and tinned copper wire are woven and shielded with a shielding rate of over 85%. It is used for the connection of the list machine.

Single core or twisted pair computer cables

True to its name, this cable consists of either single-core or twisted pair wires, maintaining its intended meaning while offering distinct content from other articles. Based on their differences in structure and usage, they can be divided into the following parts to illustrate.

Scanner Cable (UL20276)

Consisting of 12 pairs of twisted wires and 1 core single core wire (i.e. 12 and a half pairs), the conductor is 28AWG tinned stranded copper wire, and the insulation is PP Used for connecting scanner cables.

db9-usb-audio-cable

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